医療専門家向け Childhood Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes Treatment (PDQ®)

    • Last Modified :
    • 2020-06-08

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This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of pediatric multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.

This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

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General Information About Childhood Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes

MEN syndromes are familial disorders characterized by neoplastic changes that affect multiple endocrine organs.[ 1 ] Changes may include hyperplasia, benign adenomas, and carcinomas.

There are two main types of MEN syndrome:

(Refer to the PDQ summary on Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias for more information about MEN syndromes.)

参考文献
  1. de Krijger RR: Endocrine tumor syndromes in infancy and childhood. Endocr Pathol 15 (3): 223-6, 2004.[PUBMED Abstract]
Clinical Presentation, Diagnostic Evaluation, and Molecular Features

The most salient clinical and genetic alterations of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes With Associated Clinical and Genetic Alterations
Syndrome Clinical Features/Tumors Genetic Alterations
MEN type 1 (Wermer syndrome) [ 1 ] Parathyroid 11q13 (MEN1 gene)
Pancreatic islets: Gastrinoma 11q13 (MEN1 gene)
Insulinoma
Glucagonoma
VIPoma
Pituitary: Prolactinoma 11q13 (MEN1 gene)
Somatotrophinoma
Corticotropinoma
Other associated tumors (less common): Carcinoid—bronchial and thymic 11q13 (MEN1 gene)
Adrenocortical
Lipoma
Angiofibroma
Collagenoma
MEN type 2A (Sipple syndrome) Medullary thyroid carcinoma 10q11.2 (RET gene)
Pheochromocytoma
Parathyroid gland
MEN type 2B Medullary thyroid carcinoma 10q11.2 (RET gene)
Pheochromocytoma
Mucosal neuromas
Intestinal ganglioneuromatosis
Marfanoid habitus
Table 2. Clinical Features of Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) Syndromes
MEN2 Subtype Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Pheochromocytoma Parathyroid Disease
MEN2A 95% 50% 20% to 30%
MEN2B 100% 50% Uncommon
参考文献
  1. Thakker RV: Multiple endocrine neoplasia--syndromes of the twentieth century. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83 (8): 2617-20, 1998.[PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Goudet P, Dalac A, Le Bras M, et al.: MEN1 disease occurring before 21 years old: a 160-patient cohort study from the Groupe d'étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 100 (4): 1568-77, 2015.[PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Romero Arenas MA, Morris LF, Rich TA, et al.: Preoperative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis improves the surgical outcomes of pediatric patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. J Pediatr Surg 49 (4): 546-50, 2014.[PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Farnebo F, Teh BT, Kytölä S, et al.: Alterations of the MEN1 gene in sporadic parathyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83 (8): 2627-30, 1998.[PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Field M, Shanley S, Kirk J: Inherited cancer susceptibility syndromes in paediatric practice. J Paediatr Child Health 43 (4): 219-29, 2007.[PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Thakker RV: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 24 (3): 355-70, 2010.[PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Vannucci L, Marini F, Giusti F, et al.: MEN1 in children and adolescents: Data from patients of a regional referral center for hereditary endocrine tumors. Endocrine 59 (2): 438-448, 2018.[PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Thakker RV, Newey PJ, Walls GV, et al.: Clinical practice guidelines for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). J Clin Endocrinol Metab 97 (9): 2990-3011, 2012.[PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Sanso GE, Domene HM, Garcia R, et al.: Very early detection of RET proto-oncogene mutation is crucial for preventive thyroidectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 children: presence of C-cell malignant disease in asymptomatic carriers. Cancer 94 (2): 323-30, 2002.[PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Alsanea O, Clark OH: Familial thyroid cancer. Curr Opin Oncol 13 (1): 44-51, 2001.[PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Fitze G: Management of patients with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Pediatr Surg 14 (6): 375-83, 2004.[PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Puñales MK, da Rocha AP, Meotti C, et al.: Clinical and oncological features of children and young adults with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. Thyroid 18 (12): 1261-8, 2008.[PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Skinner MA, DeBenedetti MK, Moley JF, et al.: Medullary thyroid carcinoma in children with multiple endocrine neoplasia types 2A and 2B. J Pediatr Surg 31 (1): 177-81; discussion 181-2, 1996.[PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Brauckhoff M, Gimm O, Weiss CL, et al.: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B syndrome due to codon 918 mutation: clinical manifestation and course in early and late onset disease. World J Surg 28 (12): 1305-11, 2004.[PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Sakorafas GH, Friess H, Peros G: The genetic basis of hereditary medullary thyroid cancer: clinical implications for the surgeon, with a particular emphasis on the role of prophylactic thyroidectomy. Endocr Relat Cancer 15 (4): 871-84, 2008.[PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Waguespack SG, Rich TA, Perrier ND, et al.: Management of medullary thyroid carcinoma and MEN2 syndromes in childhood. Nat Rev Endocrinol 7 (10): 596-607, 2011.[PUBMED Abstract]
  17. Machens A, Elwerr M, Lorenz K, et al.: Long-term outcome of prophylactic thyroidectomy in children carrying RET germline mutations. Br J Surg 105 (2): e150-e157, 2018.[PUBMED Abstract]
  18. Kloos RT, Eng C, Evans DB, et al.: Medullary thyroid cancer: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Thyroid 19 (6): 565-612, 2009.[PUBMED Abstract]
  19. Wells SA, Asa SL, Dralle H, et al.: Revised American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid 25 (6): 567-610, 2015.[PUBMED Abstract]
Treatment of Childhood Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes

Treatment options for childhood MEN syndromes, according to type, are as follows:

  1. MEN type 1 (MEN1) syndrome: Treatment of patients with MEN1 syndrome is based on the type of tumor. The outcome of patients with MEN1 syndrome is generally good provided adequate treatment can be obtained for parathyroid, pancreatic, and pituitary tumors.

    The standard approach to patients who present with hyperparathyroidism and MEN1 syndrome is genetic testing and treatment with a cervical resection of at least three parathyroid glands and transcervical thymectomy.[ 1 ]

  2. MEN type 2 (MEN2) syndromes: The management of medullary thyroid cancer in children from families having MEN2 syndromes relies on presymptomatic detection of the RET proto-oncogene mutation responsible for the disease.

    Complete removal of the thyroid gland is the recommended procedure for surgical management of medullary thyroid cancer in children because there is a high incidence of bilateral disease.

    Hirschsprung disease has been associated with, in a small percentage of cases, the development of neuroendocrine tumors such as medullary thyroid carcinoma. RET germline inactivating mutations have been detected in up to 50% of patients with familial Hirschsprung disease and less often in the sporadic form.[ 20 ][ 21 ][ 22 ] Cosegregation of Hirschsprung disease and medullary thyroid carcinoma phenotype is infrequently reported, but these individuals usually have a mutation in RET exon 10. Patients with Hirschsprung disease are screened for mutations in RET exon 10; if such a mutation is discovered, a prophylactic thyroidectomy should be considered.[ 22 ][ 23 ][ 24 ]

    (Refer to the PDQ summary on Genetics of Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Neoplasias for more information about MEN2A and MEN2B.)

In a randomized phase III trial for adult patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic hereditary or sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma treated with either vandetanib (a selective inhibitor of RET, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and epidermal growth factor receptor) or placebo, vandetanib administration was associated with significant improvements in progression-free survival, response rate, disease control rates, and biochemical response.[ 25 ] Children with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma were treated with vandetanib in a phase I/II trial. Of 16 patients, only one had no response and seven had a partial response. Three of those patients had subsequent disease recurrence; however, 11 of 16 patients treated with vandetanib remained on therapy at the time of the report.[ 26 ]

参考文献
  1. Romero Arenas MA, Morris LF, Rich TA, et al.: Preoperative multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 diagnosis improves the surgical outcomes of pediatric patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. J Pediatr Surg 49 (4): 546-50, 2014.[PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Skinner MA, Moley JA, Dilley WG, et al.: Prophylactic thyroidectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A. N Engl J Med 353 (11): 1105-13, 2005.[PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Skinner MA: Management of hereditary thyroid cancer in children. Surg Oncol 12 (2): 101-4, 2003.[PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Fitze G: Management of patients with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Pediatr Surg 14 (6): 375-83, 2004.[PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Learoyd DL, Gosnell J, Elston MS, et al.: Experience of prophylactic thyroidectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A kindreds with RET codon 804 mutations. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 63 (6): 636-41, 2005.[PUBMED Abstract]
  6. Guillem JG, Wood WC, Moley JF, et al.: ASCO/SSO review of current role of risk-reducing surgery in common hereditary cancer syndromes. J Clin Oncol 24 (28): 4642-60, 2006.[PUBMED Abstract]
  7. National Comprehensive Cancer Network: NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Thyroid Carcinoma. Version 1.2018. Fort Washington, Pa: National Comprehensive Cancer Network, 2018. Available online with free subscription. Last accessed July 5, 2018.[PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Lallier M, St-Vil D, Giroux M, et al.: Prophylactic thyroidectomy for medullary thyroid carcinoma in gene carriers of MEN2 syndrome. J Pediatr Surg 33 (6): 846-8, 1998.[PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Dralle H, Gimm O, Simon D, et al.: Prophylactic thyroidectomy in 75 children and adolescents with hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma: German and Austrian experience. World J Surg 22 (7): 744-50; discussion 750-1, 1998.[PUBMED Abstract]
  10. Skinner MA, Wells SA: Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and the MEN 2 syndromes. Semin Pediatr Surg 6 (3): 134-40, 1997.[PUBMED Abstract]
  11. Voss RK, Feng L, Lee JE, et al.: Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma in MEN2A: ATA Moderate- or High-Risk RET Mutations Do Not Predict Disease Aggressiveness. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 102 (8): 2807-2813, 2017.[PUBMED Abstract]
  12. Heizmann O, Haecker FM, Zumsteg U, et al.: Presymptomatic thyroidectomy in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2a. Eur J Surg Oncol 32 (1): 98-102, 2006.[PUBMED Abstract]
  13. Frank-Raue K, Buhr H, Dralle H, et al.: Long-term outcome in 46 gene carriers of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma after prophylactic thyroidectomy: impact of individual RET genotype. Eur J Endocrinol 155 (2): 229-36, 2006.[PUBMED Abstract]
  14. Piolat C, Dyon JF, Sturm N, et al.: Very early prophylactic thyroid surgery for infants with a mutation of the RET proto-oncogene at codon 634: evaluation of the implementation of international guidelines for MEN type 2 in a single centre. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 65 (1): 118-24, 2006.[PUBMED Abstract]
  15. Leboulleux S, Travagli JP, Caillou B, et al.: Medullary thyroid carcinoma as part of a multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B syndrome: influence of the stage on the clinical course. Cancer 94 (1): 44-50, 2002.[PUBMED Abstract]
  16. Sakorafas GH, Friess H, Peros G: The genetic basis of hereditary medullary thyroid cancer: clinical implications for the surgeon, with a particular emphasis on the role of prophylactic thyroidectomy. Endocr Relat Cancer 15 (4): 871-84, 2008.[PUBMED Abstract]
  17. Zenaty D, Aigrain Y, Peuchmaur M, et al.: Medullary thyroid carcinoma identified within the first year of life in children with hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (codon 634) and 2B. Eur J Endocrinol 160 (5): 807-13, 2009.[PUBMED Abstract]
  18. Brauckhoff M, Machens A, Lorenz K, et al.: Surgical curability of medullary thyroid cancer in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B: a changing perspective. Ann Surg 259 (4): 800-6, 2014.[PUBMED Abstract]
  19. Makri A, Akshintala S, Derse-Anthony C, et al.: Pheochromocytoma in Children and Adolescents With Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2B. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 104 (1): 7-12, 2019.[PUBMED Abstract]
  20. Decker RA, Peacock ML, Watson P: Hirschsprung disease in MEN 2A: increased spectrum of RET exon 10 genotypes and strong genotype-phenotype correlation. Hum Mol Genet 7 (1): 129-34, 1998.[PUBMED Abstract]
  21. Eng C, Clayton D, Schuffenecker I, et al.: The relationship between specific RET proto-oncogene mutations and disease phenotype in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. International RET mutation consortium analysis. JAMA 276 (19): 1575-9, 1996.[PUBMED Abstract]
  22. Fialkowski EA, DeBenedetti MK, Moley JF, et al.: RET proto-oncogene testing in infants presenting with Hirschsprung disease identifies 2 new multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A kindreds. J Pediatr Surg 43 (1): 188-90, 2008.[PUBMED Abstract]
  23. Skába R, Dvoráková S, Václavíková E, et al.: The risk of medullary thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hirschsprung's disease. Pediatr Surg Int 22 (12): 991-5, 2006.[PUBMED Abstract]
  24. Moore SW, Zaahl MG: Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes, children, Hirschsprung's disease and RET. Pediatr Surg Int 24 (5): 521-30, 2008.[PUBMED Abstract]
  25. Wells SA, Robinson BG, Gagel RF, et al.: Vandetanib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: a randomized, double-blind phase III trial. J Clin Oncol 30 (2): 134-41, 2012.[PUBMED Abstract]
  26. Fox E, Widemann BC, Chuk MK, et al.: Vandetanib in children and adolescents with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B associated medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 19 (15): 4239-48, 2013.[PUBMED Abstract]
Treatment Options Under Clinical Evaluation for Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes

Information about National Cancer Institute (NCI)–supported clinical trials can be found on the NCI website. For information about clinical trials sponsored by other organizations, refer to the ClinicalTrials.gov website.

The following is an example of a national and/or institutional clinical trial that is currently being conducted:

Carney Complex

Carney complex is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the PPKAR1A gene, located on chromosome 17.[ 1 ] The syndrome is characterized by cardiac and cutaneous myxomas, pale brown to brown lentigines, blue nevi, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease causing Cushing syndrome, and a variety of endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, including pituitary adenomas, thyroid tumors, and large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor of the testis.[ 1 ][ 2 ][ 3 ] There are published surveillance guidelines for patients with Carney complex that include cardiac, testicular, and thyroid ultrasonography.

For patients with the Carney complex, prognosis depends on the frequency of recurrences of cardiac and skin myxomas and other tumors.

参考文献
  1. Wilkes D, Charitakis K, Basson CT: Inherited disposition to cardiac myxoma development. Nat Rev Cancer 6 (2): 157-65, 2006.[PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Carney JA, Young WF: Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and its associated conditions. Endocrinologist 2: 6-21, 1992.[PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Ryan MW, Cunningham S, Xiao SY: Maxillary sinus melanoma as the presenting feature of Carney complex. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 72 (3): 405-8, 2008.[PUBMED Abstract]
Special Considerations for the Treatment of Children With Cancer

Cancer in children and adolescents is rare, although the overall incidence of childhood cancer has been slowly increasing since 1975.[ 1 ] Referral to medical centers with multidisciplinary teams of cancer specialists experienced in treating cancers that occur in childhood and adolescence should be considered for children and adolescents with cancer. This multidisciplinary team approach incorporates the skills of the following health care professionals and others to ensure that children receive treatment, supportive care, and rehabilitation that will achieve optimal survival and quality of life:

(Refer to the PDQ Supportive and Palliative Care summaries for specific information about supportive care for children and adolescents with cancer.)

Guidelines for pediatric cancer centers and their role in the treatment of pediatric patients with cancer have been outlined by the American Academy of Pediatrics.[ 2 ] At these pediatric cancer centers, clinical trials are available for most types of cancer that occur in children and adolescents, and the opportunity to participate in these trials is offered to most patients and their families. Clinical trials for children and adolescents diagnosed with cancer are generally designed to compare potentially better therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. Most of the progress made in identifying curative therapy for childhood cancers has been achieved through clinical trials. Information about ongoing clinical trials is available from the NCI website.

Dramatic improvements in survival have been achieved for children and adolescents with cancer. Between 1975 and 2010, childhood cancer mortality decreased by more than 50%.[ 3 ] Childhood and adolescent cancer survivors require close monitoring because cancer therapy side effects may persist or develop months or years after treatment. (Refer to the PDQ summary on Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer for specific information about the incidence, type, and monitoring of late effects in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors.)

Childhood cancer is a rare disease, with about 15,000 cases diagnosed annually in the United States in individuals younger than 20 years.[ 4 ] The U.S. Rare Diseases Act of 2002 defines a rare disease as one that affects populations smaller than 200,000 persons. Therefore, all pediatric cancers are considered rare.

The designation of a rare tumor is not uniform among pediatric and adult groups. Adult rare cancers are defined as those with an annual incidence of fewer than six cases per 100,000 people, and they are estimated to account for up to 24% of all cancers diagnosed in the European Union and about 20% of all cancers diagnosed in the United States.[ 5 ][ 6 ] Also, the designation of a pediatric rare tumor is not uniform among international groups, as follows:

These rare cancers are extremely challenging to study because of the low incidence of patients with any individual diagnosis, the predominance of rare cancers in the adolescent population, and the lack of clinical trials for adolescents with rare cancers.

参考文献
  1. Smith MA, Seibel NL, Altekruse SF, et al.: Outcomes for children and adolescents with cancer: challenges for the twenty-first century. J Clin Oncol 28 (15): 2625-34, 2010.[PUBMED Abstract]
  2. Corrigan JJ, Feig SA; American Academy of Pediatrics: Guidelines for pediatric cancer centers. Pediatrics 113 (6): 1833-5, 2004.[PUBMED Abstract]
  3. Smith MA, Altekruse SF, Adamson PC, et al.: Declining childhood and adolescent cancer mortality. Cancer 120 (16): 2497-506, 2014.[PUBMED Abstract]
  4. Ward E, DeSantis C, Robbins A, et al.: Childhood and adolescent cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin 64 (2): 83-103, 2014 Mar-Apr.[PUBMED Abstract]
  5. Gatta G, Capocaccia R, Botta L, et al.: Burden and centralised treatment in Europe of rare tumours: results of RARECAREnet-a population-based study. Lancet Oncol 18 (8): 1022-1039, 2017.[PUBMED Abstract]
  6. DeSantis CE, Kramer JL, Jemal A: The burden of rare cancers in the United States. CA Cancer J Clin 67 (4): 261-272, 2017.[PUBMED Abstract]
  7. Ferrari A, Bisogno G, De Salvo GL, et al.: The challenge of very rare tumours in childhood: the Italian TREP project. Eur J Cancer 43 (4): 654-9, 2007.[PUBMED Abstract]
  8. Pappo AS, Krailo M, Chen Z, et al.: Infrequent tumor initiative of the Children's Oncology Group: initial lessons learned and their impact on future plans. J Clin Oncol 28 (33): 5011-6, 2010.[PUBMED Abstract]
  9. Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, et al., eds.: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2012. Bethesda, Md: National Cancer Institute, 2015. Also available online. Last accessed February 20, 2020.[PUBMED Abstract]
Changes to This Summary (06/08/2020)

The PDQ cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.

Treatment of Childhood Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes

Added text about the results of a review of 38 patients with genetically confirmed MEN type 2B at the National Institutes of Health (cited Makri et al. as reference 19).

This summary is written and maintained by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of NCI. The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or NIH. More information about summary policies and the role of the PDQ Editorial Boards in maintaining the PDQ summaries can be found on the About This PDQ Summary and PDQ® - NCI's Comprehensive Cancer Database pages.

About This PDQ Summary

Purpose of This Summary

This PDQ cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of pediatric multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. It is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians who care for cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.

Reviewers and Updates

This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board, which is editorially independent of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The summary reflects an independent review of the literature and does not represent a policy statement of NCI or the National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Board members review recently published articles each month to determine whether an article should:

Changes to the summaries are made through a consensus process in which Board members evaluate the strength of the evidence in the published articles and determine how the article should be included in the summary.

Any comments or questions about the summary content should be submitted to Cancer.gov through the NCI website's Email Us. Do not contact the individual Board Members with questions or comments about the summaries. Board members will not respond to individual inquiries.

Levels of Evidence

Some of the reference citations in this summary are accompanied by a level-of-evidence designation. These designations are intended to help readers assess the strength of the evidence supporting the use of specific interventions or approaches. The PDQ Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board uses a formal evidence ranking system in developing its level-of-evidence designations.

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PDQ® Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board. PDQ Childhood Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) Syndromes Treatment. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Updated <MM/DD/YYYY>. Available at: https://www.cancer.gov/types/multiple-endocrine-neoplasia/hp-child-men-syndromes-treatment-pdq. Accessed <MM/DD/YYYY>.

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